Philippe Descola initially specialized in the ethnology of Amazonia, focussing on how native societies’ relation to their environment. He has published extensively on his field research with the Achuar of Ecuador and on the comparative analysis of the relations between humans and non-humans. Descola is Professor of Anthropology at the Collège de France and Director of Studies at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris. Among his books in English are In the Society of Nature (1994), The Spears of Twilight (1996), Beyond Nature and Culture (2013), and The Ecology of others (2013). He is a fellow of the British Academy and a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.